community energy services USA-Armenia.
Solar panel is a device that converts solar energy into electricity. There are two main types of solar panels
1) solar electric panels and
2) Solar water heating systems.
Solar water heating systems
Solar water heating systems using for water heating. Solar heating systems main parts are solar thermal collectors, water storage tank or another point of usage, interconnecting pipes and a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to the tank. Solar water heating systems don’t generate electricity as PV panels. Final product for this systems is hot water. The water can be heated for using in home business and industry. Solar heating of buildings in temperate climates has a season-problem. Most heating is needed in winter time but solar radiation is fewer in winter. By storing solar heat in the in groundwater (Seasonal thermal store) we can solve this problem.
How solar energy is converted into electricity?
When scoring a ray of light on the silicon crystal, a photon knocks out one electron from the crystal lattice and causes this electron to move freely. The release of electrons with a negative charge and the “holes” (quasi-particle formed at the site of ejection of an electron), with a positive charge and there is electricity. And the whole process is called photovoltaic.
What is the difference of solar energy by plants (photosynthesis) of obtaining energy solar panels (photovoltaic)?
While the plant – the most perfect device for the transformation of sunlight, because when a photon of light knocks electrons in a piece of wood, the freed electron alters the chemical bonds within the plant and synthesizes fuel.
Is it possible to artificially create the photosynthesis?
Theoretically, yes. It would be a huge step in the development of alternative technologies, because in this way could be to synthesize a ready-made fuel. Also, in photosynthesis, the air is cleaned of carbon dioxide. If solar panels can operate like a plant, then we would live on a clean planet. Working out the fuel for our plants and automobiles, we would also have reduced the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere! But so far that the realization of artificial photosynthesis – the case for the distant future.
USA plans financial help to Armenia for building new atomic block .Armenia inheritances from USSR Nuclear power station which is currently working and produces large amount of Armenian electricity. Also Armenia has serious stuff of specialties in nuclear power electricity. Armenian government has serious long term plans to become specialties exporter in region .And investment to construction of new modern nuclear power station its perspective direction for atomic electricity leader countries such USA Russia .Currently for raising export of electricity obstacle political situation in region .Armenia Turkey relations and other conflicts in region . But Armenia have good perspectives to raise export to Georgia and throw Georgia to North Caucasian region. Also cheap electricity will help to improve Armenian industry .It will help to produce competitive products which during production using mulch electricity .
Austrian inventor Franz Tsotleterer (Franz Zotlöterer) from the town Obergrafendorf devised an unusual scheme for mini-HPS. His project is called “Maelstrom Technique” (Wasserwirbeltechnik), and mini-hydro -Gravitational- station.
In order to avoid adverse environmental impacts during construction of the dam mini-hydro inventor suggested that part of the flow near the bank set aside in a special channel that directs water to the dam.
The dam consists of a concrete cylinder, to which water is suitable for the tangent, crashing into the center of the bottom. Thus, in the center of the cylinder is formed a whirlpool, which spins a turbine. This type of mini-hydro optimal for power plants of up to 150 kW. Good efficiency appears from the drop height 0,7 m.
Conversion efficiency of energy of falling water in such a mini-hydropower plant in the current reaches 73%. A prototype installed on the creek, has developed more than 50 MW Wh of electricity at an operating elevation of water 1.3 m and a flow rate of 1 cubic meter / sec. Maximum electric power of such a mini-station reaches 9.5 kW.
The action of such mini-hydro turbine speed is low and the fish caught in a whirlpool, blade wheels do not represent danger. In addition, the blade does not cut through the water, and rotate synchronously with whirlpool.
Another environmental advantage of this project is the mixing of pollutants in the whirlpool and good aeration of the water, which contributes to heavy use of microorganisms, cleaning it naturally.
Whirlpool, which is formed into a mini-hydro, contributes to thermoregulation in the water – increased contact area of water with air leads to its cooling in summer and in winter hydropower continues to operate under the ice, the most dense water gravitates to the center of swirl at the edges of the cylinder is formed ice crust, which serves the role of insulation, not giving too much to cool the center.
In Nagorno-Karabakh built mini-hydro. The program of construction of mini-hydro is divided into several stages.
Construction in the region mini-hydro started with building on a hill near the village Aterk station Trge-1, said technical director of JSC “ArtsahGES Armen Gasparyan.
According to the head hydroelectric Valery Harutyunyan, in addition to additional reserves of electricity, at Trge-1 will be created as new jobs.
“The composition of the” Artsakh GES has formed a new unit with 31 staff members. Today, while 13 people are working. Shortage of specialists will try to compensate by residents of nearby villages, primarily Aterka “- said Harutyunyan.
Also willing to appropriate pool Trge-2, which is located about 5 km from Trge-1. Equipment is ordered, the project works are nearing completion. The building will begin this month. Trge-2 will be ready for operation in March-April 2011 The next object of the cascade hydropower plants on the river will station Trge-3.
As a result, the total generating capacity in the Nagorno-Karabakh will grow by 65.5 million kWh per year.
The works are on schedule and on mini-hydro Matagis-2. Here, the construction of watershed and a master node has been completed. Began installation of pipes. Work continues on the change in the river bed. Simultaneously, construction of hydroelectric power stations, in particular, the excavation work.
Director of JSC “Tehnoshin” Garik Petrosyan noted that in the administrative territory Matagisskoy community building work in full swing.
In general, Matagis-1 mastered 1 billion 450 million drams. The total cost of the program is 2 billion 600 million drams.
Under the plan, hydroelectric Matagis-1 and Matagis-2 will be ready for operation in January-March 2011
In general, the Nagorno-Karabakh is planned to build 24-25 mini-hydroelectric power stations, five of which are already planned to build on the first stage. After their construction will be possible to obtain an additional 30% of electricity.
Note that the shares of Artsakh HPS were listed and included in the list of “B” on the stock exchange NASDAQ OMX Armenia.
CEO Exchange NASDAQ OMX – Armen Melikyan says the first IPO “Artsakh HPS significant.
At present, the authorized capital of OJSC “Artsakh HPP increased from 5 billion 100 million AMD to 6 billion drams. Amount received from sale of shares was the construction of new mini-hydroelectric power in Nagorno-Karabakh.
Recall that in 2006, Russian specialists studied the energy sector-Karabakh – basically, with the prospect of investing in the sphere of small hydropower stations. They noted that conditions for the construction of hydropower good.And here you can make a lot of electricity.
The government of Armenia is going to build a new atomic power plant. According to the source there is no complete information about the facts of the construction as the sources of financing, the sizes of inventions and the technology of the construction aren’t announced yet. The necessity of Armenia to have this new atomic power plant is thought to be great. We can note also the Government of the Russia has shown interest in the project and readiness to support for building the new Atomic Power Plant in territory of Armenia. Aside from this, the Armenian-Russian labor group has been created already for elaboration of the technical and economic substantiation. Speaking about Atomic Energy in Armenia we can add also that more than 40% of the whole energy source comes from this. Current station block features three similar analogs. The security is thought to be in high level and passed to all of serious industrial standard tests. As Armenia is a country with no any oil and gas sources Nuclear Energy is the most Important for Republic of Armenia. Also Nuclear Stations have many advantages against oil and thermo-stations. In economics of Armenia one of the most important and growing branches is Nuclear Energy. Armenian Government always has had the biggest chances to be the leader in territory. To disclose we can only hope that the project will succeeded and Armenia will have the necessary investors and financial resources.
Official opening of new gas-steam combined cycle power unit at the Yerevan heat and power (CHP), which was attended by President Serzh Sargsyan.
The total installed capacity of the new Yerevan TPP is 271.7 MW, with power capacity of the plant – 242 MW, and thermal – 434.9 GJ / h.
At the opening ceremony of the Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Armen Movsisyan said that the new power plant to develop a 1 kW / h of electricity will spend in 2-2,3 times less fuel (natural gas) than other plants of the country.
“Thanks to this, electricity tariffs in 2010 will not be increased, despite rising prices for imported natural gas to Armenia”, – said the head of the Ministry of Energy.
In addition, he said, the new CHP plant will have a “measurable indicators” to protect the environment.
“When you use the same facilities as other plants, its emissions are much lower: nitrogen oxides – nine times less carbon dioxide – two times less carbon monoxide – 38 times less water usage – 3.6 times less “, – said Movsisyan.
The Minister also said that the energy resulting from Yerevan CHP electricity will be mainly supplied to Armenian consumers, and exports will be only the surplus.
After the commissioning of new power on the part of the Yerevan Thermal Power Plant would have 15% of total electricity generation in Armenia.
Construction of power began in July 2008 and was conducted on borrowed funds of 247 million dollars provided by Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). Credit is issued at a rate of 0.75% with a maturity of 30 years and a grace period for payment in the first ten years.
Construction of power carried out the Japanese company «Mitsui» and South Korea «GS Engineering & Construction».
The Board of Public Utilities issued Yerevan TPP license to operate the new unit. Created by the decision of the Armenian government inter-ministerial commission has given an opinion on that unit is ready to launch.
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